Neurofeedback Research and Reading List

Neurofeedback (i.e., EEG Biofeedback) interventions for attention and hyperactive problems was determined by PracticeWise, an independent national research review organization, as meeting the American Psychological Association’s Level 1 – BEST SUPPORT of clinical efficacy in its 2017-2018 report, ” Evidence-Based Psychosocial Interventions for Youth.” This report is intended to help guide health care providers, educators, youth, and families in determining which psychosocial treatment interventions are likely to be the most clinically effective and beneficial. Click here for more information about BrainTrain’s SmartMind 3 Neurofeedback system.

"Overview of Neurofeedback at California State University"California State University, San Bernardino CampusCSUSB.edu2022Full Text
"Results of Neurofeedback in Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials."Moreno-García, I., Cano-Crespo, A. & Rivera, F.Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback2022Abstract
"Neurofeedback: An Examination of Attentional Processes in Adults with Self-Reported PTSD Symptoms"Villalpando, L.S., McReynolds, C.J., Lee, G., Montgomery, S., Vermeersch, D.NeuroRegulation2020Full Paper
"A Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Posttreatment Efficacy of Neurofeedback, Behavior Therapy, and Pharmacology on ADHD Measures."Moreno-García I, Meneres-Sancho S, Camacho-Vara de Rey C, Servera M.Journal of Attention Disorders2019Abstract
"Comparing the Effect of Neurofeedback and Verbal Self-Instruction on Children Afflicted with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach."Pendar, Rahim & Bandar, Raheleh & Branch, Abbas & Shokrpour, Nasrin & Taghinezhad, Ali & Azadikhah, Mahboobeh & Nourinezhad, Hoda.Brain2018Full Text
"Using Neurofeedback to Improve ADHD Symptoms in School-Aged Children"McReynolds, C.J., Villalpando, L.S., and Britt, C.E.NeuroRegulation2018Full Text
"Evaluation of Artifact-Controlled Electroencephalographic (EEG) Training: A Pilot Study"J. La Marca, et alJournal of Neural Transmission2018Paper
"Evaluation of Artifact-Controlled Electroencephalographic (EEG) Training: A Pilot Study"

The SmartMind 4 offers the option for home training and the data syncs with the office PC. It supports the Neurobit Optima, Physiodata and the MindWave Mobile 2 EEG devices.

The clinician can configure training exercises to up-train or down-train any specified EEG frequency band using a wide variety of visual and auditory feedback exercises. Results can be graphed: Both simple or multiple frequency bands can be trained at one or more sites.

The unique training feature of SmartMind 4 is that it filters out eye blinks, eye movements, facial muscle activity and heart beats “on-the-fly.” Thus, the feedback provided is Artifact Corrected (AC) Neurofeedback which was been found in an independent double-blind peer reviewed study to result in significant changes in the Theta-Beta Power ratio at the site changed, as well as, significant improvements in IVA-2 test scores.

The changes in the control group for this study was the traditional Neurofeedback training methodology which only excludes high peak EEG signals and excessive muscle tension. Thus, traditional Neurofeedback is only artifact corrected to a very limited degree. In this study referenced above the Limited Artifact Corrected (LAC) group did not demonstrate learned control of the targeted EEG frequency bands and made only minimal improvements in their IVA-2 test scores post training.

It is recognized in published research that QEEG collected under eyes open resting condition generally contains artifact about 80% of the time. This is a result of eye blinks which occur every 2-4 seconds, natural shifts in eye focus resulting in eye movement artifacts and facial muscle activity that masks EEG every time the individual frowns, squints, swallows or smiles.
SmartMind 4 resolves the issue of the high level of naturally occurring artifact which impairs the accuracy of Neurofeedback training by identifying artifact at the sample level and only including in the computation of the EEG amplitude samples which are identified to not be contaminated by any of the numerous types of artifact that frequently occur.

Joseph A. Sandford Ph.D
CEO, BrainTrain, Inc.

"What Is Neurofeedback? A Game-Changing ADHD Treatment"Vincent Monastra, Ph.D. ADDitude Magazine2018Article
"A Comprehensive Neurofeedback Bibliography ADD/ADHD"Hammond, C. D.External Link
"Sustained effects of neurofeedback in ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis"Van Doren, J., Arns, M., Heinrich, H. et al.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry2018Abstract
"Neurofeedback: A noninvasive treatment for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans"McReynolds, C., Bell, J. & Lincourt, T.M.NeuroRegulation2017Abstract
"Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achievement in Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype"J. La Marca, et alNeuroRegulation2016Abstract
"Neurofeedback, pharmacological treatment and behavioral therapy in hyperactivity: Multilevel analysis of treatment effects on electroencephalography"Inmaculada Moreno-García, Gracia Delgado-Pardo, Carlos Camacho-Vara de Rey, Susana Meneres-Sancho, Mateu Servera-BarcelóInternational Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology2015Abstract
"Attention, Executive Function, Behavior, and Electrocortical Function, Significantly Improved With 19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback in a Clinical Setting"Wigton, N., Krigbaum, G.Journal of Attention Disorders2015Abstract
"Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with scalp acupuncture and EEG biofeedback therapy in children: a randomized controlled trial" [Article in Chinese]Cai-Di He, Bo-Xu Lang, Ling-Qing Jin, Bing LiZhongguo Zhen Jiu.2014Abstract
"Determination of the Effects of Neurofeedback Training in the Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder"Moghanloo, M., Aguilar Vafaie, M. E., Rostami, R., Farahani, H., et al.NeuroRegulation2014Paper
"In-School Neurofeedback Training for ADHD: Sustained Improvements From a Randomized Control Trial"N. J. Steiner, et alAmerican Academy of Pediatrics2014Abstract
"Jeff La Marca:
Neurofeedback in a Public School Setting:
Effect on Oral Reading Fluency and
Comprehension in Children with ADHD,
Inattentive Subtype"
Reviewed by Debórah Anne Kaufman
J. La MarcaThe Newsletter of the
Biofeedback Society of California
2014Research Review
"Neurofeedback training aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in children with ADHD: a study of relative power of EEG rhythms using custom-made software application"B. Hillard, et alClinical EEG and Neuroscience2013Abstract
"Neurofeedback in a Public School Setting: Efficacy as an Intervention for ADHD, Inattentive Subtype to Improve Reading Achievement"J. La MarcaUniversity of California, Riverside2013Abstract
"Neurofeedback in a Public School Setting: Efficacy as an Intervention for ADHD, Inattentive Subtype to Improve Reading Achievement"Kim, S., Zemon, V., Cavallo, M.M., Rath, J.F., Mccraty, R., Foley, F.W.Brain Injury2013Abstract
"Neuropsychological Rehabilitation to Enhance Quality of Life, Perceived Control and Psychological Well-Being"Strang, J.M., Chae, H.2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
"Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports"N. S. Duric, et alBMC Psychiatry2012Abstract
"Neurofeedback in ADHD: A single-blind randomized controlled trial"Bakhshayesh, A. R, et al.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry2011Abstract
"A Review of Neurofeedback Treatment for Pediatric ADHD"Lofthouse, N., et al.Journal of Attention Disorders2011Abstract
"Neurofeedback with children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. In Coben R., Evans J. R. (Eds.), Neurofeedback and neuromodulation techniques and applications "deBeus R., Kaiser D. A.Neurofeedback and neuromodulation techniques and applications (pp. 127-152)2011Listing
"Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: 6-Month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial."Gevensleben H., et al.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry2010Listing
"Effects of neurofeedback training on inhibitory capacities in ADHD children: A single blind randomized placebo-controlled study. "Perreau-Linck E., et al.Journal of Neurotherapy2010Citation
"Specific effects of neurofeedback on impulsivity in ADHD."Holtmann M., et al.Kindheit und Entwicklung2009Listing
"Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis"M. Arns, et alClinical EEG and Neuroscience2009Abstract
“Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial”H. Gevensleben, et alJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry2009Abstract
"Distinct EEG effects related to neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: A randomized controlled trial."Gevensleben H., et al.International Journal of Psychophysiology2009Abstract
"The Impact of Neurotherapy on College Students'
Cognitive Abilities and Emotions"
Fritson, K.K. et al.Journal of Neurotherapy: Investigations in
Neuromodulation, Neurofeedback and Applied Neuroscience
"A symphony in the brain: The evolution of brain wave biofeedback—Revised edition"Robbins J.Grove Press2008Amazon Link
"The Impact of Neurotherapy on College Students’ Cognitive Abilities and Emotions"Fritson, K.K., Wadkins, T.A., Gerdes, P., Hof, D. Journal of Neurotherapy2007Full Article
"Neurofeedback for children with ADHD: A comparison of SCP and theta/beta protocols"Leins U., et al.Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback2007Abstract
"Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study."J. Lévesque, et alNeuroscience Letters2006Abstract
"Sensitivity and specificity of QEEG in children with attention deficit or specific developmental learning disorders."Chabot, R. A., et alClinical EEG and Neuroscience2006Abstract
"Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder"M. Beauregard, et alApplied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback2006Abstract
"Neurofeedback with juvenile offenders: A pilot study in the use of QEEG-based and analog-based remedial neurofeedback training"Smith, P. N., & Sams, M. W.Journal of Neurotherapy2005Abstract
"Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for ADHD: Rationale and empirical foundation."Monastra V. J. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America2005Abstract
"A controlled study of the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback training on-children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder"Z. Xiong, et alJournal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology2005Abstract
"Effects of methylphenidate on quantitative EEG of boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in continuous performance test. "Song D. H., Shin D. W., Jon D. I., Ha E. H.Yonsei Medical Journal2005Abstract
"Clinical utility of EEG in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder."Loo S. K., et al.Applied Neuropsychology2005Abstract
"Functional neuroimaging of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and suggested future directions."Bush, G., et al.Biological Psychiatry2005Abstract
"Neurofeedback: An alternative and efficacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder"D.J. Fox, et alApplied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback2005Abstract
"Quantitative EEG Assessment During Neuropsychological Task Performance in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder"J.N. White, et alJournal of Adult Development2005Abstract
"Informing the ADHD Debate"Rothenberger, at alScientific American2004Abstract
"A review of electrophysiology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Qualitative and quantitative electroencephalography."Barry R. J.,, et al.Clinical Neurophysiology2003Abstract
"Neurofeedback treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate"T. Fuchs, et alApplied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback2003Abstract
"The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder"V.J. Monastra, et alApplied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback2002Abstract
"Electroencephalogram differences in two subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder."Clarke A. R., Barry R. J., McCarthy R., Selikowitz M. Psychophysiology2001Abstract
“Changes After EEG Biofeedback and Cognitive Retraining in Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”T. Tinius, et alJournal of Neurotherapy2000Article
“Improvement/Rehabilitation of Memory Functioning with Neurotherapy/QEEG Biofeedback”Thornton, K.Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation2000Abstract
"Assessing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder via quantitative electroencephalography: An initial validation study."Monastra V. J., Lubar J. F., et al.Neuropsychology1999Abstract
"A 14-Month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder."MTA Cooperative Group.Archives of General Psychiatry1999Abstract
“Cognitive training affects theta and attention, beta and impulsivity”D. Kotwal, W. Burns, D. Montgomery, A. Sellers,.Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology1998Abstract
"Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: Effectiveness in students with ADD"L. Thompson, et alApplied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback1998Abstract
"A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities"M. Linden, et alBiofeedback & Self-Regulation1996Abstract
"Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A., scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance"J.F. Lubar, et alBiofeedback & Self-Regulation1995Abstract
"A comparison of EEG biofeedback and psychostimulants in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders"T.R. Rossiter, et alJournal of Neurotherapy1995Abstract
"Innovative techniques in the treatment of ADHD: An analysis of the impact of EEG biofeedback training and a cognitive computer generated training."Fine A. H., Goldman L., Sandford J.Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association,1994Citation
"Quantitative analysis of EEG in boys with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Controlled study with clinical implications."Mann C., Lubar J., Zimmerman A., Miller C., Muenchen R.Pediatric Neurology1992Citation
"EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperkinetic child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): a preliminary report"J.F. Lubar, et alBiofeedback & Self-Regulation1976Abstract
"Alpha training and the hyperactive child: Is it effective? "Nall A. Academic Therapy1973Abstract

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